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OOPS Concept in iOS

Ans :  OOPS Concepts are mostly same in all language. Their working are same but conditions are different.

1.      Inheritance : It allows a class to be defined that has a certain set of characteristics(methods and variables) and then other classes to be created which are derived from that class. The derived class inherits all of the features of the parent class and typically then adds some features of its own.

2.      Encapsulation : That binds data and functions together and keeps both safe from outside interference and misuse. Data encapsulation’s benefit of data hiding.

Data encapsulation is a mechanism of bundling the data and the functions that use them.

Data abstraction is a mechanism of exposing only the interface and hiding the implementation details from the user.


3. Polymorphism : Difference process depends on type. The method to be invoked is determined at runtime based on the type of the object. It is like override and overload.

Override : Different class, same method name with signature

Overload : Same class, method name same with Different parameter


‌Which method is called first when app start?

Ans :

According to apple doc,


  • (BOOL)application:(UIApplication *)application willFinishLaunchingWithOptions:(NSDictionary *)launchOptions{}
gets called before
  • (BOOL)application:(UIApplication *)application didFinishLaunchingWithOptions:(NSDictionary *)launchOptions{}

Why array method containObject has id as parameter in ios?

Ans : id is a generic type. This means that the compiler will expect any object type there, and will not enforce restrictions. It can be useful if you're expecting to use more than one class of objects there. So you can add anything of type id to an NSArray.

So array method containObject has id type as parameter.

- (BOOL)containsObject:(ObjectType)anObject;

Usage :

bool bVal = [arr containObject:@5];

Difference between blocks and completion handler in iOS

Ans :

Blocks:

Blocks are a language-level feature added to C, Objective-C and C++, which allow you to create distinct segments of code that can be passed around to methods or functions as if they were values. Blocks are Objective-C objects, which means they can be added to collections like NSArray or NSDictionary.

They can be executed in a later time, and not when the code of the scope they have been implemented is being executed.
Their usage leads eventually to a much cleaner and tidier code writing, as they can be used instead of delegate methods, written just in one place and not spread to many files.
Syntax: ReturnType (^blockName)(Parameters)

see example:

int anInteger = 42;

void (^testBlock)(void) = ^{

    NSLog(@"Integer is: %i", anInteger);   // anInteger outside variables

};

// calling blocks like
testBlock();
Block with argument:

double (^multiplyTwoValues)(double, double) =

                          ^(double firstValue, double secondValue) {

                              return firstValue * secondValue;

                          };
// calling with parameter
double result = multiplyTwoValues(2,4);

NSLog(@"The result is %f", result);





Completion handler:
Whereas completion handler is a way (technique) for implementing callback functionality using blocks.
A completion handler is nothing more than a simple block declaration passed as a parameter to a method that needs to make a callback at a later time.
Note: completion handler should always be the last parameter in a method. A method can have as many arguments as you want, but always have the completion handler as the last argument in the parameters list.
Example:
- (void)beginTaskWithName:(NSString *)name completion:(void(^)(void))callback;
// calling
[self beginTaskWithName:@"MyTask" completion:^{
    NSLog(@"Task completed ..");
}];
More example with UIKit classes methods.

[self presentViewController:viewController animated:YES completion:^{
        NSLog(@"xyz View Controller presented ..");
        // Other code related to view controller presentation...
    }];
[UIView animateWithDuration:0.5
                     animations:^{
                         // Animation-related code here...
                         [self.view setAlpha:0.5];
                     }
                     completion:^(BOOL finished) {
                         // Any completion handler related code here...
                         NSLog(@"Animation over..");
                     }];

Why tableview cell separator leave some space before?

Ans : 




Alternatively, you can also edit this in interface builder (IB):
  1. Go to IB.
  2. Select Table View.
  3. Open "Attribute Inspector" on the right.
  4. Change "Separator Insets" from Default to Custom.
  5. Change the "Left" attribute from 15 to 0.
15 is default. So Left side space is seen before cell seperator.

Do you know SMTP? is it use SOAP or REST?

Ans : 

SMTP : 
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is a TCP/IP protocol used in sending and receiving e-mail.

SOAP and REST both allow you to create your own API. API stands for Application Programming Interface. It makes it possible to transfer data from an application to other applications. An API receives requests and sends back responses through internet protocols such as HTTP, SMTP, and others.

It use SOAP web-service. SOAP is protocol and rules are maintained by World wide web consortium(W3C).

Design such button in that text should be displayed below image

Ans : 




1) Select button and go to Attribute Inspector in your storyboard.

2) Assign Image to the button. (Don't use background Image)

3) Set Title text to that button.

4) Now you need to set edge and Inset so first select image from edge and set Inset as you need and then select title from edge and set inset as per your need.