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Showing posts with label Objective-C. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Objective-C. Show all posts

Difference between category in Objective C and extension Swift?

Ans : 

Differences between Objective-C Category and Extension


1. Factor : Source code
Categories provide a way to add methods to a class even if its source code is not available to you. ex: NSString
Extensions are only possible if the source code is available , because compiler compiles the extension & source code at same time.
2. Factor : Instance variable/Properties
Category : Not possible
Extensions : Possible
3. Factor : Accessibility to Inherited classes.
Category — All methods defined inside a category are also available to the inherited class
Extensions — All properties and methods defined inside a class extension are not even available to inherited class.
When to use : 
Use category when you need to want to add any methods to a class whose source code is not available to you OR you want to break down a class into several files depending on its functionality.
Use class extensions when you want to add some required methods to your class outside the main interface file. Also when you want to modify a publicly declared variable in the main interface file .


Difference between Objective-C category and Swift extension :

Mostly Objective-C category and Swift extension are same. 

Diff : 

In Objective-C category, Computed property/variable can not be declared.
In Swift extension, Computed property(not stored property) can be declared.


In Objective C, how can avoid crashing of app?

Ans. :

There are multiple aspects to your questions, let me try to answer them:

  • NSSetUncaughtExceptionHandler only catches uncaught exceptions which is only a small subset of possible crashes. 
  • Exceptions in Objective-C are defined to be fatal and it is not recommended to catch them and even more not recommended to run any non-async safe code, which includes any Objective-C and Swift code. 
  • To catch crashes you need to setup signal handlers and then only run async-safe code at the time of the crash, which is only a small subset of C. Especially you may not allocate new memory at crash time at all.

NSSetUncaughtExceptionHandler(&HandleException);
signal(SIGABRT, SignalHandler);
signal(SIGILL, SignalHandler);
signal(SIGSEGV, SignalHandler);
signal(SIGFPE, SignalHandler);
signal(SIGBUS, SignalHandler);
signal(SIGPIPE, SignalHandler);



This will works for most situations.

Which type inheritance objective c support?

Ans : Objective-C supports multi-level and hierarchical inheritance.

What is NSZombie?

Ans : 

It's a memory debugging aid. Specifically, when you set NSZombieEnabled then whenever an object reaches retain count 0, rather than being deallocated it morphs itself into an NSZombie instance. Whenever such a zombie receives a message, it logs a warning rather than crashing or behaving in an unpredictable way. As such, you can debug subtle over-release/autorelease problems without advanced tools or painstaking needle in haystack searches.

The name is a fairly obvious play on the fact that objects are normally considered "dead" when they reach retain count 0. With this setting, they continue to exist in a strange half-life - neither living, nor quite dead. Much like real zombies, except they eat rather fewer brains.


Difference between Swift Array and Objective C Array

Ans : Swift arrays (Array and for short, []) are passed by value which means
that every object contained will be copied.

NSArray are implemented as classes (and bridged from ObjC) so they're passed as references.

In Swift, we can declare three type of array.
One is Array or [],
Second is NSArray,
Third is NSMutableArray.

NSArray and NSMutableArray are coming from Objective C by bridge. So interviewer may ask what are difference between types arrays in swift?

Extract value from Array : 

Get 3rd Value from Array

Objective C : [arr objectAtIndex:2] // 2 due to index start from 0 in array

Swift : arr[2] 

Determine index of one integer in another integer - online programming question

Problem Description : Determine index of one integer in another integer

i.e If input A = 23,B = 1472367 then Output : 3 . Because '23' is 3rd index in '1472367'.

Asked in Company : Futurescape Technologies Pvt Ltd  via Codility.com

Ans : 

#import <Foundation/Foundation.h>
// you can also use other imports, for example:
// #import <SomeLibrary/SomeFile.h>

// you can write to stdout for debugging purposes, e.g.
// printf("this is a debug message\n");

int solution(int A, int B) {
    // write your code in Objective-C 2.0
    NSString *strA = [NSString stringWithFormat:@"%d",A];
    NSString *strB = [NSString stringWithFormat:@"%d",B];
 
   NSRange range =   [strB rangeOfString:strA];
   if(range.location == NSNotFound)
   return -1;
   else
   return range.location;
}


OOPS Concept in iOS

Ans :  OOPS Concepts are mostly same in all language. Their working are same but conditions are different.

1.      Inheritance : It allows a class to be defined that has a certain set of characteristics(methods and variables) and then other classes to be created which are derived from that class. The derived class inherits all of the features of the parent class and typically then adds some features of its own.

2.      Encapsulation : That binds data and functions together and keeps both safe from outside interference and misuse. Data encapsulation’s benefit of data hiding.

Data encapsulation is a mechanism of bundling the data and the functions that use them.

Data abstraction is a mechanism of exposing only the interface and hiding the implementation details from the user.


3. Polymorphism : Difference process depends on type. The method to be invoked is determined at runtime based on the type of the object. It is like override and overload.

Override : Different class, same method name with signature. It is also called runtime or dynamic polymorphism.

Overload : Same class, method name same with Different parameter. It is also called compile-time or static polymorphism. 


‌Which method is called first when app start?

Ans :

According to apple doc,


  • (BOOL)application:(UIApplication *)application willFinishLaunchingWithOptions:(NSDictionary *)launchOptions{}
gets called before
  • (BOOL)application:(UIApplication *)application didFinishLaunchingWithOptions:(NSDictionary *)launchOptions{}

Why array method containObject has id as parameter in ios?

Ans : id is a generic type. This means that the compiler will expect any object type there, and will not enforce restrictions. It can be useful if you're expecting to use more than one class of objects there. So you can add anything of type id to an NSArray.

So array method containObject has id type as parameter.

- (BOOL)containsObject:(ObjectType)anObject;

Usage :

bool bVal = [arr containObject:@5];

Difference between blocks and completion handler in iOS

Ans :

Blocks:

Blocks are a language-level feature added to C, Objective-C and C++, which allow you to create distinct segments of code that can be passed around to methods or functions as if they were values. Blocks are Objective-C objects, which means they can be added to collections like NSArray or NSDictionary.

They can be executed in a later time, and not when the code of the scope they have been implemented is being executed.
Their usage leads eventually to a much cleaner and tidier code writing, as they can be used instead of delegate methods, written just in one place and not spread to many files.
Syntax: ReturnType (^blockName)(Parameters)

see example:

int anInteger = 42;

void (^testBlock)(void) = ^{

    NSLog(@"Integer is: %i", anInteger);   // anInteger outside variables

};

// calling blocks like
testBlock();
Block with argument:

double (^multiplyTwoValues)(double, double) =

                          ^(double firstValue, double secondValue) {

                              return firstValue * secondValue;

                          };
// calling with parameter
double result = multiplyTwoValues(2,4);

NSLog(@"The result is %f", result);





Completion handler:
Whereas completion handler is a way (technique) for implementing callback functionality using blocks.
A completion handler is nothing more than a simple block declaration passed as a parameter to a method that needs to make a callback at a later time.
Note: completion handler should always be the last parameter in a method. A method can have as many arguments as you want, but always have the completion handler as the last argument in the parameters list.
Example:
- (void)beginTaskWithName:(NSString *)name completion:(void(^)(void))callback;
// calling
[self beginTaskWithName:@"MyTask" completion:^{
    NSLog(@"Task completed ..");
}];
More example with UIKit classes methods.

[self presentViewController:viewController animated:YES completion:^{
        NSLog(@"xyz View Controller presented ..");
        // Other code related to view controller presentation...
    }];
[UIView animateWithDuration:0.5
                     animations:^{
                         // Animation-related code here...
                         [self.view setAlpha:0.5];
                     }
                     completion:^(BOOL finished) {
                         // Any completion handler related code here...
                         NSLog(@"Animation over..");
                     }];

Why tableview cell separator leave some space before?

Ans : 




Alternatively, you can also edit this in interface builder (IB):
  1. Go to IB.
  2. Select Table View.
  3. Open "Attribute Inspector" on the right.
  4. Change "Separator Insets" from Default to Custom.
  5. Change the "Left" attribute from 15 to 0.
15 is default. So Left side space is seen before cell seperator.

Do you know SMTP? is it use SOAP or REST?

Ans : 

SMTP : 
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is a TCP/IP protocol used in sending and receiving e-mail.

SOAP and REST both allow you to create your own API. API stands for Application Programming Interface. It makes it possible to transfer data from an application to other applications. An API receives requests and sends back responses through internet protocols such as HTTP, SMTP, and others.

It use SOAP web-service. SOAP is protocol and rules are maintained by World wide web consortium(W3C).

Design such button in that text should be displayed below image

Ans : 




1) Select button and go to Attribute Inspector in your storyboard.

2) Assign Image to the button. (Don't use background Image)

3) Set Title text to that button.

4) Now you need to set edge and Inset so first select image from edge and set Inset as you need and then select title from edge and set inset as per your need.

Difference between viewdidload and viewwillappear?

Ans : 


ViewDidLoad - It is excecuted once. So writer settings like set label text in ViewDidLoad.
ViewWillAppear - It is called every time when view appear.


ViewDidLoad - It is called when view is begin constructed.
ViewWillAppear - When view is about ready to appear.


ViewDidLoad It is automatically called when view controller completely loaded into memory. Override this method to perform additional initialization on views that were loaded from xib.
I.e instance variable initialization, database access, network request
ViewWillAppear It is called when View is about to added on view hierachy. If we want to change some, then we have to override this method.Like change orientation, change screen data.


Suppose your tableview data will be changed periodically. Then you have to write [tableview reloaddata] in ViewWillApper.

Read UIViewController LifeCycle

Difference between Strong and Weak in iOS

Ans : 


Strong
strong property means that you want to “own” the object. Only when you set the property to nil will the object be  destroyed. Unless one or more objects also have a strong reference to the object. This is the one you will use in most cases.
  1. Creates ownership between property and assigned value.
  1. This is default for object property in ARC so it does not let you worrying about reference count and release the reference automatically.
  1. It is replacement for retain. We use if and only if we need to use as retain.
  1. Retain count will be incremented.
  1. Creates non-ownerships between property and assigned value.
  1. Strong is used on parent object and weak is used on child object when parent is released then child object reference is also set to nil
  1. It helps to prevents retain cycles.
  1. It doesn’t protect the referenced object when collection by garbage collector.
  1. Weak is essentially assigned, un-retain property.
  1. Retain count will not be incremented.


Weak
Weak property means you don’t want to have control over the objects lifecycle. The object only lives on while another objects has a strong reference to it. If there are no strong references to the object then it will be destroyed. 
Weak reference is useful to avoid situation like retain cycle. Retain cycle occurs when two or more objects have strong reference to each other. This two object will never be freed in memory due to strong reference. So to avoid weak reference, One object has a strong ownership reference to another object, and another object should be have a weak reference to first object.

Strong references should be used when a parent object is referencing a child object and never the other way around. That is, a child class should not have a strong reference to the parent class.

Weak references should be used to avoid retain cycles and an object has the possibility to become nil at any point of it’s lifetime.

Good read : Click here




What are blocks in iOS?

Ans : 

Blocks are first-class functions, which is a fancy way of saying that Blocks are regular Objective-C objects. Since they’re objects, they can be passed as parameters, returned from methods and functions, and assigned to variables. A block creates a const copy of any local variable that is referenced inside of its scope.

Block is a chunk of code that can be executed at some future time.

Blocks can greatly simplify code. They can help you reduce code, reduce dependency on delegates, and write cleaner, more readable code.

Block is alternative of delegate or NSNotificationCenter. In delegate and NSNotificationCenter, callback methods and main method are written different places. So its more difficult to read. In block, call back method written in main method as parameter.

Declaration : return_type (^block_name)(param_type, param_type, ...)
int (^add)(int,int)

Definition : ^return_type(param_type param_name, param_type param_name, ...) { ... return return_type; }
^(int number1, int number2){ return number1+number2 }

Declaration + Definition : 

int (^add)(int,int) = ^(int number1, int number2){ return number1+number2; }

We can call block also like following : 

int resultFromBlock = add(2,2);

If we take example of NSArray using block :


[theArray enumerateObjectsUsingBlock:^(id obj, NSUInteger idx, BOOL *stop){

    NSLog(@"The object at index %d is %@",idx,obj);

}];



If we take example of UIView animation using block :

[UIView animateWithDuration:5.0 
                     animations:^{
                        [animatingView setAlpha:0];
                        [animatingView setCenter:CGPointMake(animatingView.center.x+50.0, 
                                                             animatingView.center.y+50.0)];
                     } 
                     completion:^(BOOL finished) {
                         [animatingView removeFromSuperview];
                     }];

Apple also suggest to use block instead of call back methods.

Difference between blocks and completion handler : 

We have understand what is block. Completion handler is a way (technique) for implementing callback functionality using blocks. As a completion handler parameter, we have to pass block.

Example of Completion handler is seen above as last example of blocks.

Completion handler always comes as last parameter.

Read more : Difference between blocks and completion handler



Expandable tableview Logic in iOS

Ans : 

Logic  : 

  • Display UITableView containing just the header/section titles for each category.
  • When a section is touched, expand it if it is not already expanded. Otherwise, collapse the section.
  • When a section is touched, expand it and if another section is currently expanded collapse that section so that only one section is expanded at a time.
  • To expand a section, determine the number of items that must be displayed within that section and insert that number of rows in the UITableView; then display the items in the newly inserted rows.
  • To collapse a section, determine the number of items currently displayed within that section and delete that number of rows from the UITableView.

To reload one section only : 

[self.tableView beginUpdates];
 (void)reloadSections:(NSIndexSet *)sections withRowAnimation:(UITableViewRowAnimation)animation:
[self.tableView endUpdates];

Difference between XIB and Storyboard

Ans : 


XIB :

1) Xib files are used with a single UIView.

3)It's utilizes more memory as compared to storyboard and quiet slow.

4) It is compatible from iOS5 and onwards

5) You can do localizations for different languages and countries using different XIBs .

6) It's difficult to use same Xib to support multiple devices.

Storyboard :

1)You can layout all your Scenes like View Controllers, Nav Controllers, TabBar Controllers, etc in a single storyboard.

3)Usually fast and allocates less memory.

4)It's not compatible prior to iOS 5 .

5)"Dynamic" and "Prototype" cells can be used easily.

6)Storyboards best to use for the apps with a small to medium amount of screens.

Difference between synchronous and asynchronous calls in Objective-C

Ans : 

Synchronous :
This call means task will be executed in order.
Asynchronous : This call means task may or may not be executed in order.

When call is called synchronously, then thread that initiated that operation will be wait to current task to be finished.
When call is called asynchronously, then it will not wait.

If we want to do some task without harassing UI, we can do those tasks in background thread. This goal is to keep free main thread, so it continuously respond UI event. So we can dispatch our task in background state asynchronously.

So for do task in background thread, we will divide in 2 parts.

1. GCD - Grand Central Dispatch. By using GCD, you have to grab one of global background queue or create your own background queue.

// one of the global concurrent background queues
dispatch_queue_t queue = dispatch_get_global_queue(DISPATCH_QUEUE_PRIORITY_DEFAULT, 0);

// or you could create your own serial background queue:
// dispatch_queue_t queue = dispatch_queue_create("com.iosiqa.app.queuename", 0);

2. Dispatch your task to that queue asynchronously

dispatch_async(queue, ^{
    // task that to be done in background and it may be slow
});

The pattern for operation queues is very similar. Create an operation queue and add operations to that queue.

Lets see example :

Asynchronous call with Multithreading :

// Methods gets called in different thread and does not block the current thread.
[NSURLConnection sendAsynchronousRequest:request
                                   queue:queue
                       completionHandler:
    ^(NSURLResponse *response, NSData *data, NSError *error) {
}];

Synchronous call with Multithreading (not so useful):

//Do something
dispatch_sync(queue, ^{
    //Do something else // work in another queue or thread
});

//Do some more task


Difference between thread-safe and non-thread-safe in iOS

Ans : 

Thread-Unsafe -> If any object allow to modify by more than one thread at the same time.  (non-atomic property is thread-unsafe. Comments are welcomed)

Thread-safe -> If any object not allow to modify by more than one thread at the same time.Immutable objects are generally thread-safe. (atomic property attribute type. Comments are  welcomed)

In general, immutable classes like NSArray, let are thread-safe, while their mutable variants like NSMutableArray,var are thread-unsafe.