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Showing posts with label Synergy Technology Service. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Synergy Technology Service. Show all posts

Can I store null value in info.plist?

Ans : 

Null or NSNull value type is not supported in info.plist file. Base type of info.plist file is array or dictionary. In array or dictionary, you can save only following type :

  1. Array
  2. Dictionary
  3. Boolean
  4. Data
  5. Date
  6. Number
  7. String
No above type supports nil value. They are not optional. So null or nil value can not be stored in info.plist file.

What is Object mapping that helping Jon parsing?

Ans. : Object mapping is convert to JSON to SomeOtherObject, BussinessModel to PersistenceModel, etc or map fields of JSON to SomeOtherObject fields.

There are many third party library available for same purpose.

1. We use mapping using init method without third party library :

struct User {
  let id: Int
  let name: String
  init?(dictionary: [String: Any]) {
    guard let id = dictionary["id"] as? Int else { return nil }
    guard let name = dictionary["user_name"] as? String else { return nil } = id = name

do {
  if let userDictionary = try JSONSerialization.jsonObject(with: jsonData, options: []) as? [String: Any] {
    let user = User(dictionary: userDictionary)
    //Do something with user
} catch {


3. Using codable protocol  (Without third party)
4. SwiftyJson 

In today's world mostly people using 3rd option for  object mapping.

Design such button in that text should be displayed below image

Ans : 

1) Select button and go to Attribute Inspector in your storyboard.

2) Assign Image to the button. (Don't use background Image)

3) Set Title text to that button.

4) Now you need to set edge and Inset so first select image from edge and set Inset as you need and then select title from edge and set inset as per your need.

What are blocks in iOS?

Ans : 

Blocks are first-class functions, which is a fancy way of saying that Blocks are regular Objective-C objects. Since they’re objects, they can be passed as parameters, returned from methods and functions, and assigned to variables. A block creates a const copy of any local variable that is referenced inside of its scope.

Block is a chunk of code that can be executed at some future time.

Blocks can greatly simplify code. They can help you reduce code, reduce dependency on delegates, and write cleaner, more readable code.

Block is alternative of delegate or NSNotificationCenter. In delegate and NSNotificationCenter, callback methods and main method are written different places. So its more difficult to read. In block, call back method written in main method as parameter.

Declaration : return_type (^block_name)(param_type, param_type, ...)
int (^add)(int,int)

Definition : ^return_type(param_type param_name, param_type param_name, ...) { ... return return_type; }
^(int number1, int number2){ return number1+number2 }

Declaration + Definition : 

int (^add)(int,int) = ^(int number1, int number2){ return number1+number2; }

We can call block also like following : 

int resultFromBlock = add(2,2);

If we take example of NSArray using block :

[theArray enumerateObjectsUsingBlock:^(id obj, NSUInteger idx, BOOL *stop){

    NSLog(@"The object at index %d is %@",idx,obj);


If we take example of UIView animation using block :

[UIView animateWithDuration:5.0 
                        [animatingView setAlpha:0];
                        [animatingView setCenter:CGPointMake(, 
                     completion:^(BOOL finished) {
                         [animatingView removeFromSuperview];

Apple also suggest to use block instead of call back methods.

Difference between blocks and completion handler : 

We have understand what is block. Completion handler is a way (technique) for implementing callback functionality using blocks. As a completion handler parameter, we have to pass block.

Example of Completion handler is seen above as last example of blocks.

Completion handler always comes as last parameter.

Read more : Difference between blocks and completion handler

Which type of encryption you have used in iOS App?

Ans : I have used trippleDES for passing data in request to server.

NSData *jsonData = [NSJSONSerialization dataWithJSONObject:dicPostDict options:kNilOptions error:&error];

 NSString *strJsonData=[[NSString alloc] initWithData:jsonData encoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding];

 NSData *encryptedJsonString = [CommonMethods tripleDesEncryptString:strJsonData  key:@"2-055PL&okjnnhkey@inihgr" error:nil];
 NSString *strencryptedJsonString = [encryptedJsonString base64Encoding];

Class, Structs and Enum

Ans : 

Structs are value type, Class is reference type.
Structs are stored in stack, Class are stored in heap.

So, Structs are faster than class because of its memory management.

Similarity between Class and Struct: 

Define properties to store values
Define methods to provide functionality
Be extended
Conform to protocols
Define intialisers
Define Subscripts to provide access to their variables

Only class can do:

Type casting
Define deinitialisers
Allow reference counting for multiple references.

When to use class and when to use struct?

--> When we want to maintain reference, then we should use class due to class is reference type. When not, we should use struct.


Here's an example with a class. Note how when the name is changed, the instance referenced by both variables is updated. Bob is now Sue, everywhere that Bob was ever referenced.

class SomeClass {
    var name: String
    init(name: String) { = name

var aClass = SomeClass(name: "Bob")
var bClass = aClass // aClass and bClass now reference the same instance! = "Sue"

println( // "Sue"
println( // "Sue"

And now with a struct we see that the values are copied and each variable keeps it's own set of values. When we set the name to Sue, the Bob struct in aStruct does not get changed.

struct SomeStruct {
    var name: String
    init(name: String) { = name

var aStruct = SomeStruct(name: "Bob")
var bStruct = aStruct // aStruct and bStruct are two structs with the same value! = "Sue"

println( // "Bob"
println( // "Sue"

So for representing a stateful complex entity, a class is awesome. But for values that are simply a measurement or bits of related data, a struct makes more sense so that you can easily copy them around and calculate with them or modify the values without fear of side effects.

Another theory for what to choose : 

Structs are preferable if they are relatively small and copiable because copying is way safer than having multiple references to the same instance as happens with classes. This is especially important when passing around a variable to many classes and/or in a multithreaded environment. If you can always send a copy of your variable to other places, you never have to worry about that other place changing the value of your variable underneath you.

With Structs, there is much less need to worry about memory leaks or multiple threads racing to access/modify a single instance of a variable. (For the more technically minded, the exception to that is when capturing a struct inside a closure because then it is actually capturing a reference to the instance unless you explicitly mark it to be copied).

Classes can also become bloated because a class can only inherit from a single superclass. That encourages us to create huge superclasses that encompass many different abilities that are only loosely related. Using protocols, especially with protocol extensions where you can provide implementations to protocols, allows you to eliminate the need for classes to achieve this sort of behavior.

The talk lays out these scenarios where classes are preferred:

  • Copying or comparing instances doesn't make sense (e.g., Window)
  • Instance lifetime is tied to external effects (e.g., TemporaryFile)
  • Instances are just "sinks"--write-only conduits to external state (e.g.CGContext)

Local Notification in iOS

Ans : 

 what the best way to Scheduled more than one notification but not remove the previous one?
A. Use different identifier

Different type of request access under UNAuthorizationOptions like .alert, .badge, .sound and .carplay.

let center =  UNUserNotificationCenter.current()a
center.requestAuthorization(options: [.alert, .sound, .badge]) { (result, error) in

 //handle result of request failure


UNNotificationRequest helps to create notification request. Which requires 3 information like an identifier, content and trigger.

1. identifier : It is unique for every notification. If we send another notification with same identifier it remove existing notification and replace it with new one.

2. content : display it in banner and main attributes are title, subtitle, body and attachment media. Using UNMutableNotificationContent we can define content.

3. trigger : the event that will trigger the notification to be displayed to the user. There are 3 classes as UNTimeIntervalNotificationTrigger,UNCalendarNotificationTrigger,UNLocationNotificationTrigger which are subclass of  UNNotificationTrigger.

example of creating local notification :

//get the notification center
let center =  UNUserNotificationCenter.current()

//create the content for the notification
let content = UNMutableNotificationContent()
content.title = " Jurassic Park"
content.subtitle = "Lunch"
content.body = "Its lunch time at the park, please join us for a dinosaur feeding"
content.sound = UNNotificationSound.default()

//notification trigger can be based on time, calendar or location
let trigger = UNTimeIntervalNotificationTrigger(timeInterval:2.0, repeats: false)

//create request to display
let request = UNNotificationRequest(identifier: "ContentIdentifier", content: content, trigger: trigger)

//add request to notification center
center.add(request) { (error) in
    if error != nil {
        print("error \(String(describing: error))")

-> UNUserNotificationCenterDelegate having 2 methods which is used to display notification when app is in foreground. (WillPresent delegate method is used for display notification when app in foreground).

What is category?

Ans : It is used to extend the functionality of the class. Implementation of category is in different file with name like classname + categoryname.h and .m file.

Read : Differnce between Category and Extension